So what is this polio disease? Who causes this disease and who can get it?
Answers to many such questions are going to be found in today’s blog, that is, to get detailed information about polio disease, you have to read today’s blog, that too till the last.
So let’s start and know about polio disease –
Polio, also called Poliomyelitis, is a disease caused by polio virus. This is a highly infectious disease which mostly affects children below 5 years of age, but this disease can also occur in adults.
Its virus can spread from person to person through contaminated water and destroys the nerve cells present in the spinal cord, causing paralysis or the muscles of some parts of the body becoming weak.
According to WHO, one in every 200 polio infections results in permanent paralysis.
Polio virus, which is called wild poliovirus, has three strains: Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3. Type 2 and Type 3 have been eliminated worldwide, but Type 1 wild poliovirus has not yet been completely eradicated. And cases of this type 1 virus are being found in some countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Which regions cause this disease?
It often travels through the body via the route from feces to mouth. The fecal oral route is a particular route of transmission of a disease in which pathogens present in fecal particles are passed from one person to the mouth of another person.
The main reasons for transmission of this type of disease are lack of sanitation and poor hygiene. That is, this infectious disease is transmitted by coming in contact with infected feces, hence in areas where there is shortage of water or lack of flush toilets. This disease spreads more by using drinking water contaminated with human waste.
And this disease spreads so fast and is so contagious that a person who lives with a person affected by polio can also catch this virus, that is, he can also get polio infection. Apart from contaminated water, this infection can also spread through contaminated food.
Sometimes this virus can be spread by sneezing and coughing because this virus lives in the throat and intestines. Although this happens quite rarely.
You should also know that polio infection can occur if these small things are not taken care of –
Neglecting to thoroughly wash hands after using the bathroom, which is essential for our well-being and health.
Not washing hands while changing children’s diapers or after touching stool.
Eating food items that have come in contact with dirty water
· Swimming in dirty water
· Not taking time, proper distance and precautions when someone sneezes or coughs.
· And touching dirty surfaces.
That is, if attention is paid to these things, the spread of polio infection can be prevented to a great extent.
But how does this virus affect the body and which people are at high risk?
So after entering the body, polio virus multiplies in the intestine and after that it can attack the nervous system.
People with weak immune systems, pregnant women and small children are more at risk. Many times, when children’s toys come in contact with infected body waste and children take them in their mouth while playing with them, then the chances of getting this infection increases.
Apart from this, if people who have not taken polio vaccine travel to areas where there has been a recent polio outbreak, or areas where there is no cleanliness, then the risk of them getting polio will be very high.
Apart from this, if the person getting tonsils removed has not taken the vaccine, then he will also be at risk of polio infection.
Therefore, it is better to take care of all these things so that polio infection can be avoided and its spread can also be stopped.
And now let us also know the different types of this disease – There are 3 types of polio infections –
Sub clinical –
In this type, no symptoms are seen because it does not affect the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. 95% of polio cases are of this type.
This type of polio affects the central nervous system but does not cause paralysis.
Which is the most serious form of polio and is also rare. In this, partial or total paralysis occurs.
This polio type is also of 3 types –
1. Spinal Polio, which affects the spine.
2. Bulbar Polio, which affects the brain stem.
3. Bulbospinal Polio, which affects the spine and brainstem.
After understanding these polio types, let us now know what are the symptoms of polio?
So we had learned a while back in the blog that about 95% of the people who come in contact with polio virus do not have any symptoms and it is called sub clinical polio.
But yes, infected people can spread the disease even without symptoms.
Now let us see what are the symptoms of Non-paralytic Polio and Paralytic Polio –
So first let us know the symptoms of Non-paralytic Polio –
Its symptoms are flu-like and can last for 1 to 10 days. Due to this, the infected person may suffer from Fever, Headache, Vomiting, Fatigue, Sore Throat and Meningitis. It is also called abortive polio.
Whereas Paralytic Polio, which accounts for only 1 percent of total polio cases, causes paralysis in the brainstem, spinal cord or both.
Its initial symptoms are similar to non-paralytic polio, but after a week, more serious symptoms start appearing which include –
Difficulty breathing, swallowing and speaking
A sudden onset of paralysis, a condition that can either be a fleeting setback or a life-altering, permanent change. Such symptoms appear.
In some rare cases, complete paralysis develops and occasionally the polio virus attacks the muscles that help with breathing. When this happens, death occurs.
You are understanding the seriousness of this, right?
So now we have known the symptoms of polio, now it is important to know further that even after recovery from polio, polio can come back. And this can happen 15 to 40 years after recovery from polio. This is called post-polio syndrome, in short PPS, that is, if a child has had polio, then post-polio syndrome can develop in him when he grows up.
Its symptoms can be –
Weakness in muscles and joints
Getting tired easily
Having sleep related breathing problems
Difficulty breathing and swallowing
Difficulty in tolerating cold temperatures
Having weak concentration and weak memory
· And having depression.
After understanding post polio syndrome, let us now come back to polio disease and know how it is diagnosed?
To diagnose polio, a healthcare provider or doctor… performs a physical examination of the patient, tests samples of body fluids, and asks about symptoms. In body fluids samples, samples of saliva, stool and blood are taken.
And if the symptoms are serious, then the liquid present around the brain and spinal cord is also taken, which is called Cerebrospinal fluid. At this time, the doctor should also be told whether the patient has recently traveled anywhere or not, so that it can be easier to diagnose this disease.
So this is how polio is diagnosed and then comes treatment. How is polio treated?
So there are no specific medications for polio. In case of paralytic polio, physical therapy is given. Most people recover without long-lasting damage, but for those who have muscle weakness or paralysis, it may be permanent.
But the best way to prevent polio is to get vaccinated and vaccination is usually done in childhood itself and if a person has not got vaccinated in childhood then he should consult his doctor or healthcare provider.
And you should know that there are 2 types of polio vaccines –
Inactive polio vaccine i.e. IPV
And Oral polio vaccine i.e. OPV, which is also called live vaccine.
Inactive polio vaccine is used in most parts of the world and OPV is used only in those parts of the world where polio cases still occur naturally.
You should also know that every year on 24 October, World Polio Day is celebrated to spread awareness about polio. There is a special reason for celebrating World Polio Day on 24th October.. and that is that Jonas Salk was born on this day, and Jonas Salk had developed the polio vaccine.
And in this way, this blog based on polio disease is completed here and with the completion of this blog, you have come to know what is polio? How infectious is this? What are its symptoms, diagnosis and preventions? This disease has been eradicated to a great extent and you have also come to know that it can be prevented to a great extent by taking care of small things. And yes, not only children, adults can also get polio. And for more such interesting and innovative blogs, visit our website TECHASTER.COM so that every new and innovative information reaches you first.